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What Causes Fibroids in Women: Understanding the Science


Hey there, ladies! Did you know that fibroids are a common condition that can affect you at some point in your life? These benign tumors that grow within the muscular wall of your uterus may sound harmless, but they can cause some serious discomfort and complications. Think heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and even pressure on your bladder or bowel. Yikes! This discomfort can easily impact your quality of life, leading to missed work, social isolation, and depression. But don't worry; early detection and treatment are crucial to prevent these complications and manage the symptoms effectively.


By understanding the causes and risk factors for fibroids, you can take control of your health, prevent their development, and seek appropriate medical care. So, let's dive in and learn more about these pesky little growths!

What are Fibroids?

Fibroids are non-cancerous tumors that grow in the muscular tissue of the uterus. They can vary in size and number, and some women may have multiple fibroids. Fibroids can be located within the uterine wall, inside the uterine cavity, or on the outer surface of the uterus.


There are four main types of fibroids:


  • Intramural fibroids: These are the most common type of fibroid and grow within the uterine wall.
  • Submucosal fibroids: These grow within the inner lining of the uterus and can cause heavy menstrual bleeding and other complications.
  • Subserosal fibroids: These grow on the outer surface of the uterus and can cause pelvic pain and pressure.
  • Pedunculated fibroids: These are attached to the uterus by a stalk and can cause severe pain if the stalk twists.


Causes of Fibroids

The exact cause of fibroids is not known, but research suggests that they are caused by a combination of genetic and hormonal factors. Fibroids contain more estrogen and progesterone receptors than normal uterine muscle cells, which suggests that hormones play a role in their growth. Here are the main factors that studies suggest play a role in the development of fibroids:


Genetic Changes

Research has found that certain genetic changes can increase a woman's risk of developing fibroids. Mutations in the MED12 gene have been found in up to 70% of fibroids. Other genetic changes that have been linked to fibroids include mutations in the HMGA2 gene and deletions in the FH gene.



Estrogen and progesterone are hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle and play a role in the growth of the uterine lining. Fibroids contain more receptors for these hormones than normal uterine muscle cells, which suggests that hormonal imbalances may play a role in their development. This is supported by the fact that fibroids tend to grow during pregnancy when hormone levels are high and shrink after menopause when hormone levels decline.


Other Factors

Other factors that may increase a woman's risk of developing fibroids include obesity, high blood pressure, ethnicity, and a family history of fibroids. 


Risk Factors for Fibroids

  • Age: Fibroids are most common in women aged 30-40, although they can develop at any age.
  • Family History: Women with a family history of fibroids are more likely to develop the condition themselves. This suggests that there may be a genetic component to the development of fibroids.
  • Obesity: Studies have shown that obese women are at an increased risk of developing fibroids compared to women who have a normal body weight. This could be due to the fact that fat cells have the ability to produce hormones that stimulate the growth of fibroids.
  • Race: African American women are more likely to develop fibroids than women of other ethnicities. They are also more likely to develop fibroids at a younger age and have larger and more numerous fibroids.


Remember: You’ve Got Options

Now that you understand how fibroids work, they hopefully feel a bit less intimidating than before! While fibroids often come with highly unpleasant and sometimes painful symptoms, remember they are treatable, and you’ve got options! 


At Kofinas, we specialize in treating fibroids and can help you find the most suitable treatment for your specific case while preserving your fertility. We understand the importance of individualized care and work with you to develop a personalized treatment plan. By taking control of your health and learning more about fibroids, you can make informed decisions and receive the best possible care. Learn more about fibroids with our resource below! 


Learn About Fibroids

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